Buckingham is a market town in north Buckinghamshire, England, close to the borders of Northamptonshire and Oxfordshire, which had a population of 12,043 at the 2011 Census. It is a civil parish with a council. Buckingham was the county town of Buckinghamshire from the 10th century, when it was made the capital of the newly formed shire of Buckingham, until Aylesbury took over this role early in the 18th century. Buckingham has a variety of restaurants and pubs, typical of a market town. It has a number of local shops, both national and independent. Market days are Tuesday and Saturday which take over Market Hill and the High Street cattle pens. Buckingham is twinned with Mouvaux, France. Buckingham stands at the crossroads of the A413 (north-south), A421 and A422 (east-west) roads. The town was by-passed in the early 1980s by creating a new section of the A421 to the south. Buckingham is linked to Milton Keynes, Winslow and Aylesbury by the regular X60 bus. An inter-city coach service, the X5, links the town to both Cambridge (via Bedford) and Oxford (via Bicester). Some surrounding villages are connected to Buckingham by a market day bus and there is a community bus scheme called Bart.